XL Fortran for AIX 8.1

Language Reference

FORALL Construct

+---------------------------------Fortran 95---------------------------------+

The FORALL construct performs assignment to groups of subobjects, especially array elements.

Unlike the WHERE construct, FORALL performs assignment to array elements, array sections, and substrings. Also, each assignment within a FORALL construct need not be conformable with the previous one. The FORALL construct can contain nested FORALL statements, FORALL constructs, WHERE statements, and WHERE constructs.

+-----------------------------End of Fortran 95------------------------------+

+-------------------------------IBM Extension--------------------------------+

The INDEPENDENT directive specifies that each operation in the FORALL statement or construct can be executed in any order without affecting the semantics of the program. For more information on the INDEPENDENT directive, see INDEPENDENT.

+----------------------------End of IBM Extension----------------------------+

+---------------------------------Fortran 95---------------------------------+


See FORALL (Construct) for syntax details.

See END (Construct) for syntax details.

is one or more of the following statements or constructs:
WHERE statement (see WHERE)
WHERE construct (see WHERE Construct)
FORALL statement (see FORALL)
FORALL construct

is either assignment_statement or pointer_assignment_statement

Any procedures that are referenced in a forall_body (including one referenced by a defined operation or defined assignment) must be pure.

If a FORALL statement or construct is nested within a FORALL construct, the inner FORALL statement or construct cannot redefine any index_name used in the outer FORALL construct.

Although no atomic object can be assigned to, or have its association status changed in the same statement more than once, different assignment statements within the same FORALL construct can redefine or reassociate an atomic object. Also, each WHERE statement and assignment statement within a WHERE construct must follow these restrictions.

If a FORALL_construct_name is specified, it must appear in both the FORALL statement and the END FORALL statement. Neither the END FORALL statement nor any statement within the FORALL construct can be a branch target statement.

+-----------------------------End of Fortran 95------------------------------+

+---------------------------------Fortran 95---------------------------------+

Interpreting the FORALL Construct

  1. From the FORALL Construct statement, evaluate the subscript and stride expressions for each forall_triplet_spec in any order. All possible pairings of index_name values form the set of combinations. For example, given the statement:
    FORALL (I=1:3,J=4:5)

    The set of combinations of I and J is:


    The -1 and -qnozerosize compiler options do not affect this step.

  2. Evaluate the scalar_mask_expr (from the FORALL Construct statement) for the set of combinations, in any order, producing a set of active combinations (those that evaluated to .TRUE.). For example, if the mask (I+J.NE.6) is applied to the above set, the set of active combinations is:
  3. Execute each forall_body statement or construct in order of appearance. For the set of active combinations, each statement or construct is executed completely as follows:


    Evaluate, in any order, all values in the right-hand side expression and all subscripts, strides, and substring bounds in the left-hand side variable for all active combinations of index_name values.

    Assign, in any order, the computed expression values to the corresponding variable entities for all active combinations of index_name values.

    INTEGER :: X,I=2,J=49
    FORALL (X=I:J)
      C(X)=B(X)-A(X) ! All these assignments are performed after the
                     ! assignments in the preceding statement


    Determine, in any order, what will be the targets of the pointer assignment, and evaluate all subscripts, strides, and substring bounds in the pointer for all active combinations of index_name values. If a target is not a pointer, determination of the target does not include evaluation of its value. Pointer assignment never requires the value of the righthand side to be determined.

    Associate, in any order, all targets with the corresponding pointer entities for all active combinations of index_name values.

    WHERE statement or construct

    Evaluate, in any order, the control mask and pending control mask for each WHERE statement, WHERE construct statement, ELSEWHERE statement, or masked ELSEWHERE statement each active combination of index_name values, producing a refined set of active combinations for that statement, as described in Interpreting Masked Array Assignments. For each active combination, the compiler executes the assignment(s) of the WHERE statement, WHERE construct statement, or masked ELSEWHERE statement for those values of the control mask that are true for that active combination. The compiler executes each statement in a WHERE construct in order, as described previously.

    INTEGER I(100,10), J(100), X
    FORALL (X=1:100, J(X)>0)
      WHERE (I(X,:)<0)
        I(X,:)=0       ! Assigns 0 to an element of I along row X only if
                       ! element value is less than 0 and value of element
                       ! in corresponding column of J is greater than 0

    FORALL statement or construct

    Evaluate, in any order, the subscript and stride expressions in the forall_triplet_spec_list for the active combinations of the outer FORALL statement or construct. The valid combinations are the Cartesian product of combination sets of the inner and outer FORALL constructs. The scalar_mask_expr determines the active combinations for the inner FORALL construct. Statements and constructs for these active combinations are executed.

    ! Same as FORALL (I=1:100,J=1:100,I.NE.J) A(I,J)=A(J,I)
    INTEGER A(100,100)
    OUTER: FORALL (I=1:100)
      INNER: FORALL (J=1:100,I.NE.J)

+-----------------------------End of Fortran 95------------------------------+

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